The IMRAD. The main technical rules of an article's formatting.

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To publish research papers in the international databases is not so an easy task.The difficulty lies in the fact that such citation platforms as Scopus and Web of Science have high requirements for the technical formatting of research papers.But if a scientist knows about all the features of an article, it will be much easier to prepare it.


 Every research paper should have a correct structure and clear sections.Even if it is of innovative character and has  unique content, without correct formatting it can be sent back to an author for revising.After that, it should be submitted again for consideration and spend precious time for waiting for the results.


Since 1972, IMRAD System has become the standard for the formatting of research papers.This abbreviation is created with the help of the first letters of an article's main sections: introduction, methods, results and discussion.



A research paper is looked for by the title and it should be up to 10 words that fully describe the topic of the reseach.It is best to clearly formulate the title and use bold font.If you want it to attract attention and stand out from the rest of research works, it should be formulated as follows:

- there is an emphasis on the aim and object of the research;

- exactly expresses the essence;

- no abbreviations unless they're common knowledge;

- it should be of interest to readers.



The abstract should be correctlly structured according to the following parameters:

- actuality of scientific research;

- aims;

- what methods were used in a research paper;

- main results;

- conclusions.

It is important to specify for whom this article will be useful.Based on the abstract read, the other researchers will conclude whether to continue reading the whole article or not.It should be translated into English that it can be read by foreign scientists.The abstract should contain from150 to 300 worlds.



In these words lies the meaning of a research paper.With their help it is easier for the other authors to find necessary materials in the electronic databases.They are prescribed after the abstract in the amount of 4-6 words and translated into the English language.They should reflect the field of science in which the research is conducted, the topic, aim and object of the research.



This is rather an important and difficult section for description.In the introduction one should reveal the value of the experiment for the scientific community, highlight the work done and say about further needs for this experience.The main theses should be formulated and the previous research on this topic should be said about.The main objectives and hypotheses should be identified.This section should not contain "idle chatter" or general information.An obligatory criterion is at least 5 references to the sources.



In this section, a scientist describes the whole process of the research to make it possible to repeat the experiment and get the same results.Here he indicates the materials and methods that were used at the time of writing an article.It is important to specify in a research paper whether it is an experiment or a theoretical research.If you don't know what to start with, look through some other articles from the same journal.Specify the tools and equipment by means of which the experiment was conducted.



This is one of the most important sections in which one should show all the results of the research and their comparison with other research.The results should be in the form of figures or tables and consist of clear data obtained in the course of a research paper. An author can specify again the aim and methodology, and even prescribe the difficulties if they arose during the work.



A scientist gives an evaluation the results and explains how these results were obtained. He analyses them, makes conclusions and gives necessary recommendations for studying this topic in further research. Besides, protects the data, draws parallels with the results of the other research and see if there is an interconnection between them.

Based on the strong points of the research, an author shows the weak points that require further developing, says about the practical and theoretical use of the experiment's results. A scientist draws conclusions and describes further possibilities of the research.



In the end, one should make to sum up the laconic result of a research paper.What is the significance of knowledge obtained for the scientific world?And how can they be applied in practice? Write recommendations to scientists who are researching in the field. This article will be very helpful for them.



The bibliographic list mentions the information sources that were useful for an article. They should be cited throughout the whole research paper and in alphabetical order. In most cases, the literature should be issued in accordance with the international format of the ARA 6th edition, but it is better to specify this moment in the journal.

Many scientists advise to write an article during conducting the research, not after. All sections should be of the same value, only the discussion together with the conclusions can be longer than the rest of a research paper. The volume of an article should be at least 4 pages and a maximum of 24. In case if the information is more, it is better to divide an article into parts. 


The research papers on technical disciplines are formatted with the help of the IMRAD system.

Different IMRAD modifications can be used to structure articles in other fields of science.

For example, the following structure is used for economic disciplines:

  • Introduction
  • Theoretical section
  • Data and methods used
  • Model
  • Data
  • Results
  • Conclusion


The research papers on humanities are often described in individual thematic sections. However, such articles should include the description of the objectives of the research, methods and results of the experiment. 


Correct structure helps an author

- pave the way from the aim of the research to the result;

- write the plan of the research;

-  present the results in a logical sequence;

- verify the actuality of the topic to the research problem;

- structure and understand the objectives. 


It is difficult for almost every scientist to switch to making up article, because all his attention is taken by the research itself. However, as practice shows, peer reviewers are very painstaking both to the content and to the structuring of a research paper. This should be taken into account when submitting the material for consideration. If you are not sure that you will cope with such a difficult task, it is better to turn to professionals who know how to properly prepare a research paper for submission for the peer review.


If you are not sure that you will cope with such a difficult task, it is better to turn to professionals who know how to properly prepare a research paper​​​​​​​ for submission for the peer review. We are addressed by scientists whom we help properly prepare their research articles as the peer reviewers of these databases data are very demanding in this matter. If you also need help in competent structuring the material, and you want it to meet all international standards, write to our specialist on the website to help in solving this issue.​​

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